Early history[ edit ] Ancient China was the first country in the world that implemented a nationwide standardized test, which was called the imperial examination. The main purpose of this examination was to select able candidates for specific governmental positions.
Fear is an emotional state in the presence, or anticipation of a dangerous stimulus. Often it becomes intense like anger. Fear means being afraid of or panic. Fear for loud sound, strangers, unknown objects, new places, dark shadows and darkness, seclusion, imaginary objects and withdrawal of love etc.
Children are afraid of various animals including frogs, rats, insects, snakes, cockroaches, etc. Tiger and elephant bring out emotion of awe and surprise. Children are afraid of demons, thieves, villains in operas and movies. Watson in course of studying the emotional behaviour of a boy named Albert found that he was conditioned to fear a previously neutral object- a white rat.
When this eleven-month-old Albert was shown a white rat he reached for it, showing no fear response. But every time he touched the rat he was hearing a loud sound, which made him frightened of rat.
He soon developed fear for rat. Thus rat became a "conditioned stimulus" to fear. Albert also was conditioned by Watson to fear white furry objects; furry coats etc. Watson and Rayner, Some fears are acquired through conditioning process.
The child comes to fear both lightning and thunder as one follows the other. But thunder is the primary reason for fear. Fear also is learned through contact with punitive objects for example, electric shock while exploring an open switch board.
Some are learnt through imitation of parental and sibling fears. Watson also added that the loss of body support evokes fear. In families parental physical punishments, verbal reprimand, forced toilet training; doctors with injection syringe are the causes of emotion.
In adult life the loss of security on account of unemployment, retirement, demise of companions, natural calamities like super cyclone or plague, poi unrest and old age etc. Due to fear, the behaviors affected are: Responses to the fear emotion are usually expressed through anxiety, flight and feeling miserable.
For example, fears of public speaking, fear of public toilet, fear of eating in public are the examples of social phobia. It is known from experimental studies that phobias can develop through classical conditioning. These irrational fears can be eliminated and cured through classical conditioning methods.
Fear emotions can be rectified by the following techniques:Don't let the idea of a big exam get the best of you. Examinations are almost always stressful. Students rarely know exactly what to expect on the test, and those who suffer from exam fear or exam anxiety can see their grades suffer as a result of this stress.
The History of Creepy Dolls Take a trip to the uncanny valley and hope you make it back unscathed.
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