What safety and ethical issues do you think might arise over the use of genetic enineering? If you are a teamleader at a supermarket and a problem arises between your team member and a customer how would you solve it?
Hayward, and Teresa E. People who are poorer and who have less education are more likely to suffer from diseases, to experience loss of functioning, to be cognitively and physically impaired, and to experience higher mortality rates Adler, Boyce, Chesney, Folkman, and Syme, ; Adler et al.
In the United States, few health problems are more likely to occur among those who are better off, and some health conditions are particularly sensitive to SES. In recent years socioeconomic differences in health also appear to be increasing in the United States and in other developed countries Crimmins and Saito, ; Feldman, Makuc, Kleinman, and Coroni-Huntley, ; Manton, ; Marmot, ; Pappas, Queen, Hadden, and Fisher, ; Preston and Elo, People of different social statuses lead lives that differ in almost all aspects—childhood circumstances, educational experiences, work careers, marriage and family experiences, leisure, neighborhood conditions, and health care Williams and Collins, Many of the effects of SES on health outcomes are indirect through a variety of life experiences, opportunities, or choices related to SES, beginning in early life and either cumulating or being tempered by later life situations.
Health differences are observed throughout the lifecycle, and the general assumption is that differences diminish at older ages.
This assumption was questioned recently by Lynch The issue of whether members of all ethnic groups are able to equally translate increases in SES into health improvements has been raised Ribisi, Winkleby, Fortmann, and Fiora, ; Williams, Lavizzo-Mourey, and Warren, In addition, researchers have questioned whether the race gap in health is concentrated at the low end of the socioeconomic ladder, with some studies reporting that the race gap in health is strongest among persons with the fewest socioeconomic resources Lillie-Blanton, Parsons, Gayle, and Dievler, Other researchers have suggested that the association is more linear, with increasingly better health as SES increases, although there may be some leveling off at the top Adler et al.
Both health and socioeconomic status have many dimensions and can be conceptualized and measured in multiple ways, with measurement often falling far short of the conceptual ideas.
When possible, we examine associations for both the prevalence and incidence of a health problem.
Prevalence—or the percentage with a health problem at a point in time—is the more commonly used indicator of disease experience, yet it has limitations.
These experiences, particularly through mortality selection, may also alter the distribution of socioeconomic resources as a cohort ages Lauderdale, Incidence—that is, the onset of new cases of health problems—captures health experiences prospectively and points to possible trajectories of health after baseline observation.
Incidence allows us to investigate how socioeconomic conditions when individuals do not have a health problem are associated with subsequent health experiences. Sociologists emphasize a Weberian approach that encompasses the notions of class, status, and power.
Common Ethical Dilemmas in Medicine Here are examples of common ethical dilemmas that may arise and warrant the assistance of our committee: Medical decision making for patients who are incapacitated and/or have no named medical surrogate decision maker Differences of opinion among family members about what a patient would want for . Feb 05, · 1) If team members have "different ethical perspectives" that could mean, for instance, that some members would be willing to cheat, while others would not be willing. Some would be willing to rob or kill or take some wild risk, while others would not be iridis-photo-restoration.com: Resolved. The CANS was developed from a communication perspective so as to facilitate the linkage between the assessment process and the design of individualized service plans including the application of evidence-based practices. the basics of conflict: what it is, how to deal with it, and how it can be positive. When destructive conflict does arise.
SES is thus more than financial well-being or educational achievement, which are often used as indicators in empirical work; more broadly, it encompasses a lifetime of access to knowledge, resources, and opportunities.
In recent work, Oakes and Rossi suggest that measures of SES should reflect material capital, human capital, and social capital.
Although indicators of adult status such as education, current income, wealth, and occupation are often the indicators of SES available for analysis, these may be fairly gross measures of the lifetime accumulation or experience of some types of capital.
For example, education represents human and social capital at the beginning of adulthood. Annual income represents only recent accumulation of material capital.
Appropriately measuring adult lifetime income may be a better indicator of lifetime material status Juster and Suzman, Wealth accumulation may represent total material capital available at the moment, but this may be highly affected by life circumstances, including health.
Sociologists and epidemiologists emphasize the effects of lifetime socioeconomic conditions on health rather than the effects of health on SES. Economists are more sensitive to this latter association, and recent work has documented the link between health problems and reductions in income and wealth at older ages Smith and Kington, Importantly, however, the causal direction of the association potentially varies by age, the metric of SES, and likely by specific health conditions.
For example, educational attainment is not affected by health for most people because of the lifecycle stage when education is acquired. Of course, for some people with diseases and conditions with childhood onset, educational attainment is influenced by health. On the other hand, health problems that arise during the working years e.
The cross-sectional relationship of income and current health status among those at the older working ages most likely reflects the combination of the effect of the ability to work on income as well as the effect of earlier income on health Shea, Miles, and Hayward, Thus examining this relationship in the cross-section says little about causal effects.
In old age, wealth is often consumed by those with health problems in order to provide medical or custodial care, resulting in a negative relationship between health and wealth Smith, ; Smith and Kington, Most investigations, however, have found that the influence of health on socioeconomic indicators is less important than causation in the other direction, but this cannot be assumed to be true with respect to all relationships between SES and health outcomes across the life course.
It is important to consider the potential for interpreting the direction of causation when selecting indicators of SES as well as health outcomes particularly at the older ages. For an older population, some measures of SES and some health conditions are especially likely to be both causes and consequences of each other.
If older disabled persons move in with their working, middle-aged children in order to cope with disability, they will reside in a family with higher current income.
If people stop working at a young age because of disability, they are more likely to have reduced pension funds for the rest of their lives.Ethical issues across cultures: managing the differing perspectives of China and the USA Dennis A.
Pitta Professor of Marketing, University of Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Hung-Gay Fung Even in the West, ethical differences can lead to contrasting business practices.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, enacted in the USA, is the. From an economic perspective, the two restraints represent different routes to similar anticompetitive ends. ): “There is broad consensus among ICN members that market power is the ‘ability to price profitably above the competitive level’.
The ability to maintain supra-competitive prices is used as shorthand for the various ways. The CANS was developed from a communication perspective so as to facilitate the linkage between the assessment process and the design of individualized service plans including the application of evidence-based practices.
the basics of conflict: what it is, how to deal with it, and how it can be positive. When destructive conflict does arise. What Are Potential Conflicts That Might Arise Among Or Between Team Members During This Course How Will Team Members Deal With These Conflicts Kendra Morgan Larry Sullivan MBA June 14, Benefits of Conflict among Team Members Introduction Conflict is inevitable in the workplace.
Conflict – if not effectively addressed – can leave group members with a deeply jaundiced view of teams. Strategies: To address both preexisting and potential motivation problems: Explain why working in groups is worth the frustration. Establish clear expectations for group members, by setting ground rules and/or using team contracts.
Feb 05, · 2) The main obstacle that would arise from such circumstances is that there would be no agreement in "method of working together" (no cohesion) among the team members.
3) Other obstacles could be infighting, dissension, outright physical combat, tremendous tension and stress, iridis-photo-restoration.com: Resolved.